13. What is management?
What do you think makes a good manager? Which four of the following qualities do you
think are the most important?
being decisive: able to make quick decisions
being efficient: doing things quickly, not leaving tasks unfinished, having a
tidy desk, and so on
being friendly and sociable
being able to communicate with people
being logical, rational and analytical
being able to motivate and inspire and lead people
being authoritative: able to give orders
being competent: knowing one’s job perfectly, as well as the work of one’s
being persuasive: able to convince people to do things
having good ideas
This text summarizes some of Peter Drucker’s views on
management. As you read about his description of the work of a manger, decide
whether the five different functions he mentions require the four qualities you
selected in your discussion, or others you did not choose.
Peter Drucker, the well-known American business professor and
consultant, suggests that the work of a manager can be divided into planning
(setting objectives), organizing, integrating (motivating and communicating),
measuring, and developing people.
First of all, managers (especially senior managers such as company
chairmen – and women – and directors) set objectives, and decide how their
organization can achieve them. This involves developing strategies, plans and
precise tactics, and allocating resources of people and money.
Secondly, managers organize. They analyse and classify
the activities of the organization and the relations among them. They divide
the work into manageable activities and then into individual jobs. They select
people to manage these units and perform the jobs. 959e43j
Thirdly, managers practice the social skills of motivation and
They also have to communicate objectives to the people responsible for
attaining them. They have to make the people who are responsible for performing
individual jobs form teams. They make decisions about pay and promotion. As
well as organizing and supervising the work of their subordinates, they have to
work with people in other areas and functions.
Fourthly, managers have to measure the performance of their staff,
to see whether the objectives set for the organization as a whole and for each
individual member of it are being achieved.
Lastly, managers develop people – both their
subordinates and themselves.
Obviously, objectives occasionally have to be modified or changed. It is
generally the job of a company’s top managers to consider the needs of the
future, and to take responsibility for innovation, without which any
organization can only expect a limited life. Top managers also have to manage a
business’s relations with customers, suppliers, distributors, bankers,
investors, neighbouring communities, public authorities, and so on, as well as
deal with any major crises which arise. Top managers are appointed and
supervised and advised (and dismissed) by a company’s board of directors.
Although the tasks of a manager can
be analyzed and classified in this fashion, management is not entirely
scientific. It is human skill. Business professors obviously believe that
intuition and ‚instinct’ are not enough; there are management skills that have
to be learnt. Drucker, for example, wrote over 20 years ago that ‚ Altogether
this entire book is based on the proposition that the days of the „intuitive”
manager are numbered’, meaning that they were coming to an end. But some people
are clearly good at management, and others are not. Some people will be unable
to put management techniques into practice. Others will have lots of technique,
but few good ideas. Outstanding managers are rather rare.
the following sentences with these words.
of directors communicate innovations manageable performance
Resources setting supervise
1 Managers have to decide how best to allocate
the human, physical and capital …. available to them.
Managers – logically – have to make sure that the jobs and tasks given to their
subordinates are …. .
There is no point in … objectives if you don’t … them to your staff.
Managers have to … their subordinates, and to measure, and try to improve,
their … .
Managers have to check whether objectives and targets are being … .
top manager whose performance is unsatisfactory can be dismissed by the
company’s …. .
Top managers are responsible for the …. that will allow a company to adapt to
a changing world.
b. The text contains a number of common verb-noun
partnerships (e.g. achieve objectives,
deal with crises, and so on).
these verb and nouns to make common collocations.
14. Types of Managers
We have been using the term manager
to mean anyone who is responsible for subordinates and other organizational
resources. There are many different types of managers, with diverse tasks and
responsibilities. Managers can be classified in two ways: by their level in the organization – so-called
first-line, middle, and top managers – and by the range of organizational activities for which they are responsible -
so-called functional and general managers.
Managers. The lowest level in an organization at which
individuals are responsible for the work of others is called first-line or
first-level management. First-line managers direct operating employees only;
they do not supervise other managers. Examples of first-line managers are the
„foreman” (maistru) or production
supervisor (sef de productie)
in a manufacturing plant, the technical supervisor (sef de echipa) in a research department, and the clerical
supervisor (sef de birou) in a
large office. First-level mangers are often called „supervisors.”
Managers. The term middle management can include to more
than one level in an organization. Middle managers direct the activities of
lower-level managers and sometimes also those of operating employees. Middle
managers’ principal responsibilities are to direct the activities that
implement their organizations’ policies and to balance the demands of their
superiors with the capacities of their subordinates.
Managers. Composed of a comparatively small group of
executives, top management is responsible for the overall management of the
organization. It establishes operating policies and guides the organization’s
interactions with its environment. Typical titles of top managers are „chief
executive officer”, „president” and „senior vice-president”. Actual titles vary
from one organization to another and are not always a reliable guide to
membership in the highest management classification.
Functional and General
other major classification of managers depends on the scope of the activities
Managers. The functional
manager is responsible for only one organizational activity, such as
production, marketing, sales, or finance. The people and activities headed (a conduce) by a functional manager are
engaged in a common set of activities.
Managers. The general
manager, on the other hand,
oversees (a supraveghea) a complex
unit, such as a company, a subsidiary, or an independent operating division. He
or she is responsible for all the activities of that unit, such as its
production, marketing, sales, and finance.
A small company may have only one general manager – its president or
executive vice-president – but a large organization may have several, each at
the head of a relatively independent division. In a large food company, for
example, there might be a grocery-production division, a refrigerated-products
division, and a frozen-food-products division, with a different general manager
responsible for each. Like the chief executive of a small company, each of
these divisional heads would be responsible for all the activities of the unit.
executive officer = director executiv
vice-president = vice-presedinte senior (mai important dec ¢t cel Junior)
vice-president – vice-presedinte executiv
executive = director sau administator al unei firme
15. The Management Process
Plans give the organization its objectives and set up the best
procedures for reaching them. In addition, plans become the guides by which the
organization obtains and commits (a
angaja) the resources required to reach its objectives, members of the
organization carry on activities consistent with (concordant cu) the chosen objectives and procedures, and progress
toward the objectives is monitored and measured, so that corrective action can
be taken if progress is unsatisfactory.
The first step in planning is the selection of goals for the
organization. Then objectives are established for the subunits of the organization – its divisions, departments, and so
on. Once the objectives are determined, programs are established for achieving
them in a systematic manner. Of course, in selecting objectives and developing
programs, the manager considers their feasibility and whether will be
acceptable to the organization’s managers and employees.
made by top management for the organization as a whole may cover periods as
long as five or ten years. In a large organization, such as a multinational
energy corporation, those plans may involve commitments (angajamente) of billions of dollars. Planning at the lower levels,
by middle or first-line managers, covers much shorter periods. Such plans may
be for the next day’s work, for example, or for a two-hour meeting to take
place in a week.
Once managers have established objectives and developed plans or
programs to reach them, they must design and staff an organization able to
carry out those programs successfully. Different objectives will require
different kinds of organizations. For example, an organization that aims to develop
computer software will have to be far different from one that wants to
manufacture blue jeans. Producing a standardized product like blue jeans
requires efficient assembly-line techniques, whereas writing computer programs
requires teams of professionals – systems analysts, software engineers, and
Although they must interact effectively, such people cannot be organized
on an assembly-line basis. It is clear, then, that managers must have the
ability to determine what type of organization will be needed to accomplish a
given set of objectives. And they must have the ability to develop (and later
to lead) that type of organization.
After plans have been made, the structure of the organization has been
determined, and the staff has been recruited and trained, the next step is to
arrange for movement toward the organization’s defined objectives. This
function can be called by various names: leading, directing, motivating,
actuating (impulsionare, stimulare),
and others. But whatever the name used to identify it, this function involves
getting the members of the organization to perform in ways that will help it
achieve its established objectives.
Whereas planning and organizing deal with the more abstract aspects of
the management process, the activity of leading is very concrete; it involves
working directly with people.
Finally, the manager must ensure that the actions of the organization’s
members do in fact move the organization toward its stated goals. This is the
controlling function of management, and it involves four main elements:
standards of performance.
performance and comparing it against the established standards.
Detecting deviations from
standard goals in order to make corrections before a sequence (succesiune, sir) of activities is
Taking action to correct
performance that does not meet those standards.
Through the controlling
function, the manager can keep the organization on its chosen track, keeping it
from straying (a se deparata, a se
abate) from its specified goals.
16. Management Level and Skills
Managers at every level plan, organize, lead, and control. But they
differ in the amount of time devoted to each of these activities. Some of these
differences depend on the kind of organization in which the manager works, some
on the type of job the manager holds.
Managers of small private clinics, for example, spend their time quite
differently from the way the heads of large research hospitals spend theirs:
Managers of clinics spend comparatively more time practicing medicine, and less
time actually managing, than do directors of large hospitals. The technical
supervisor of research physicists at AT&T Bell Labs will have a job that in
some respects is quite different from that of a production supervisor on a
General Motors assembly line. Yet both are first-line managers. And yet there
will also be important similarities in the jobs of all these managers.
Other differences in the ways managers spend their time depend upon
their levels in the organizational hierarchy. Robert L. Kats, a teacher and
business executive, has identified three basic kinds of skills: technical,
human, and conceptual. Every manager needs all three. Technical skill is the ability to use the procedures, techniques,
and knowledge of a specialized field. Surgeons, engineers, musicians, and
accountants all have technical skills in their respective fields. Human skill is the ability to work with,
understand, and motivate other people, as individuals or in groups. Conceptual skill is the ability to
coordinate and integrate all of an organization’s interests and activities. It
involves the manager’s ability to see the organization as a whole, to
understand how its parts depend on one another, and to anticipate how a change
in any of its parts will affect the whole.
Kats suggests that although all three of these skills are essential to a
manager, their relative importance depends mainly on the manager’s rank in the
organization. Technical skill is most important in the lower levels. Human
skill, by contrast, is important for managers at every level: because they must
get their work done primarily through others, their ability to tap (a capta, a aborda) the technical skills
of their subordinates is more important than their own technical skills.
Finally, the importance of conceptual skill increases as one rises through the
ranks of a management system based on hierarchical principles of authority and
responsibility. It depends mainly on the manager’s rank in the organization.
- Date: Kwiecień 18, 2013
- Comments: 0